Trade in Services in the European Union
Keywords:services, EU, liberalization, trade, services trade restrictiveness index
Services dominate in creation of value added in national economies, especially in developed countries and they have growing trend in developing (emerging) economies. They cover four modes of trade (according to GATS), that makes their calculation complex and a part of services is hidden in the value of production/trade of manufactured goods. Their importance in foreign trade, despite the increasing trend, is still three times smaller that the value of trade in goods, but also it is under-valuated. This paper explains specific characteristics of services foreign trade, provides analysis of structure of services trade but also pointed the limitation of wider trade expansion (i.e. liberalization of trade). The analysis employ statistical tools and secondary data and covers the EU member states. The EU is very important player in the global arena and it is net exporter of services, where richer member states are oriented to the other business sector while the Central, East and South members are focused to travel. The EU members mainly traded between them selves. Services trade faced higher barriers in cross-border trade. OECD measures these restriction by Services Trade Restrictiveness Index. EU common market provides better condition for the intra- EEA trade in services even the protection differs between countries and it is more liberal for computer and telecom sectors while in accounting services and legal services the protection is high due to national legislations.