SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS OF LITHUANIA AND GERMANY: DIVERSITY OF APPROACHES
The healthcare system forms premises to carry out citizen’s health protection, provide health care services to the customer – the patient. The health system, its ﬁnancing, structure, the peculiarity of interaction between its elements are deﬁned by the health protection policy carried out by the country, which is determined by the countries regime, traditions, moral values, economical, political, demographical and other factors. The health protection policy forms strategic aims and the priority directions of action in the questions of health protection. Many of the economic and management law are applicable in the health protection sector. The growth of the healthcare market of European Union is caused by the technical medicine progress, the more diverse choice of healthcare services, the expectations of patients, and the development of information and communication technologies. Acquired pharmaceutical and medicine technology innovations allow offering patients a large variety of choices to improve health. Although, health protection is one of the sectors, where speciﬁc distortions arise because of the market, so government participation and resource distribution is necessary. Discussions arise both in the society and different institutions, about the range of government intervention that will bring the optimal beneﬁt, how to not create preconditions for unnaturally high demand for medical treatment services and medicaments, still guaranteeing free health protection. This way, during the formation of the health protection policy the choice between innovations and economic growth promotion, expenses control and cost reduction, searching for the beneﬁt and effectiveness ratio. Also, the democratic society principles and the mutual respect between the services provider and consumer should be implemented in the health protection domain. Judging from the above regulations, we can assume that the question of health insurance is one of the most important health protection policy questions in the European Union.
The paper by using comparative analysis method analyzes the health care systems of Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Lithuania. In the article is described concept and types of health insurance, is made comparison of circle of insured persons of the analysed countries, their rights and responsibilities. There is made analysis of management and funding of health care systems.
Lithuanian and the German health care systems have common features and differences. In both countries the health care institute has retained the essential features of the compulsory health insurance. Lithuanian and German health care systems distinguishes between mandatory and voluntary health insurance. The compulsory health care scheme aims to involve all groups of persons. The countries concerned are different moral values, the ideological foundation of health insurance. Lithuanian and German health care systems are different in health insurance coverage, determination of underwriting fees and collection mechanisms, many other factors.