STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD’S REGIONS
The paper includes the research results on structural development processes in grain production in various regions of the world obtained by analysing the structural composition of output of grain crops and assessing the development trends both in Europe and the other regions of the world. The globalised market of agricultural goods impacts, to a great extent, the production of grains, especially its structure, but these markets are mostly impacted by the development of grain production, especially the trends and directions shaping the structure of total output of these crops The structural differences are observed even among particular agricultural enterprises of one region, and they are determined by strategic production goals, the structure of agricultural industries, as well as the professional capacity of management, and the impact of traditions.
The research aim is to analyse the structure of total output of grain crops and to assess its development trends in Europe, its regions, and other groups of countries in the world. In the research, it was concluded that the total output structure in various European regions is different, with wheat production dominating in North Europe, whereas the proportion of maize production has signiﬁcantly increased in the other parts of Europe. But in general, the global grain market is mostly impacted by 10 largest grain producing countries, but especially grain production develops in Asian countries, which can make changes in the impact of groups of countries or regions. According to the research, it was concluded that ten largest areas sown with grain crops belong to 3 Asian, 2 North American and 2 European countries, as well as to Australia, Brazil, and Nigeria, however, their areas sown with grains tend to decrease. The qualitative indicators of grain farming, in terms of productivity, also change, which is determined by the progress of genetics, technologies, and other related industries in any researched region.
The qualitative structure of grain products changes in the world’s regions. The dominant crop is rice in Asian countries, but the cultivation of maize also sharply increases.
The structure of output of grains is very different in the European regions, and the changes taking place there are very diverse. The share of wheat absolutely dominates in Western, Northern, and Eastern Europe, whereas in Southern Europe wheat has been outweighed by maize over the recent years. In Northern and Eastern Europe, where natural conditions are not appropriate for maize, the share of wheat continues to rise. In Northern Europe, barley is the most popular crop of feed after wheat, however, its share has signiﬁcantly decreased there. The share of barley in the grain balance sheet substantially shrinks in Eastern and Western Europe, but it is also popular in Southern Europe. The dominating share belongs to maize not only in Southern Europe, but its share increase also in Eastern and Western Europe. In all the European regions oats are popular, but their share shrinks everywhere. Rye, too, is grown in all the European regions, however, in general, it can be regarded as an insigniﬁcant product, as its share has decreased almost twice as much even in Eastern Europe, while in the other European regions the share of rye has decreased to 0.6-2.7%. Over the recent 10 years, a hybrid of rye and wheat – triticale – was introduced in small areas. Rice production is slightly progressing in Southern Europe.