Integration of Latvian Immigrants in Germany Throuch Psychological Well-being and Engagement with the Cultural Community


  • Solveiga Blumberga Associate Professor
  • Mara Vilcane Student



Immigrants, psychological well- being, integration, immigrants engagement, Latvian Association


To raise and/ or increase a psychological well-being of Latvian immigrants in Germany and facilitate their integration, the Latvian Association where Latvian immigrants have an opportunity to come together, mark holidays, cherish traditions, as well as get involved in amateur art groups, has been founded. Some quantitative studies on immigrants’ satisfaction with life in Germany are available, but studies on the Latvian immigrants in Germany have not been conducted so far. The aim of the study is to research the psychological well-being of Latvian immigrants and their engagement with their cultural community in Germany. To define 6 dimensions of well-being in a sample of the Latvian immigrants in Germany, survey on psychological well-being, and a survey developed by the authors on attracting immigrants to the community were used as data collection methods. Findings of the research showed that, the most important dimensions of the psychological well-being of the Latvian immigrants are described by articles of the Life Purpose scale. It means that the Latvian immigrants in Germany strive to fulfil their goals and make their lives better with purpose to integrate into the German environment. Respondents rated high also the Environmental Mastery dimension, meaning that Latvian immigrants are able to provide for their daily needs abroad. Articles of the Personal Growth scale were rated low. It shows the fact that the Latvian immigrants are unable to facilitate their personal growth, though in Germany they receive higher salary than in Latvia, as this salary is still in the low-wage segment of Germany. The Autonomy scale resonating with the status of immigrants and their dependence on various authorities is also evaluated very low. Articles related to the Affiliation scale showed that the most important engagement factors for the Latvian immigrants in Germany were emotions, Latvian traditions, and Latvian’s. The Inspiring People scale received the lowest evaluation among the engagement factors. In addition, the Distance factor was evaluated with low scores, what can be explained in two ways – either the Association is too far from the place of residence or the distance is insignificant, and some Latvians will visit the Association, regardless of it.

Keywords: immigrants, psychological well-being, integration, immigrants’ engagement, Latvian Association

Author Biography

Mara Vilcane, Student

Master:s programme - Strategic Business Management, University RISEBA


Acquaye, H. E. (2018). Counselind and Values. Google Scholar.

Algan, Y., Bisin, A., Manning, A., & Verdier, T. (2013). Cultural integration of immigrants in Europe. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online.

Bekk, M., Spörrle, M., & Felser, G. (2009). Match me, if you can. München: Universität München.

Bekteshi, V., & Kang, S. (2018). ontextualizing Acculturative Stress among Latino Immigrants in the United States. A Systematic Review. In Ethnicity & Health. (pp. 2-4). Google Scholar.

Böhnke, P., & Kohler, U. (2010). Well-Being and Inequality. New York: Springer.

Bragina, I., & Voelcker-Rehge, C. (2018). The exercise effect on psychological well-being in older adults—a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Ger J Exerc Sport Res: Ger J Exerc Sport Res. Retrieved from

Brooks, S., Webster, R., Smith, L., Woodland, L., Wesseley, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920.

Bruhn, M. (2016). Marketing. Grundlagen für Studium und Praxis (13 ed.). Wiesbaden: Springer.

Carlsson, J., & Sonne, C. (2018). Mental Health, Pre-migratory Trauma and Post-migratory Stressors Among Adult Refugees. In Morina, Nexhmedin/Nickerson, Angela.

Chiswick, B., & Miller, P. (2007). The International Transferability of Immigrants´ Human Capital Skills. IZA Discussion Paper 2670.

European Social Survey (2021). Retrieved 11 02, 2021, from

Gibson, H. (2018). Chronicling the use of life satisfaction, quality of life, wellness and wellbeing in leisure research. Taiwan: Taiwan National University.

Glazer, N., & Moynihan, D. (1970). Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians ans Irish in New York City (2 ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hans, S. (2010). Assimilation oder Segregation? Anpassungsprozesse von Einwande rern in Deutschland. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Hein, M. (2021). Remote Leadership: Emotionale Bindung auf Distanz. Norderstedt: Books on Demand.

Heinemann, G. (2008). Multi-Channel-Handel. Erfolgsfaktoren und Best Practices (2., überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage ed.). Wiesbaden.

Hörnschemeyer, J. (2016). Die Wirkung von Duft im Verkaufsraum. Der Einfluss von Geruch auf den Konsumenten. München: Grin Verlag.

Huppert, F. (2017). Challenges in defining and measuring well-being and their implications for policy. In Future directions in well-being (pp. 163-167). Cham: Springer.

Kämpfer, S. (2014). Migration und Lebenszufriedenheit. Opladen, Berlin, Toronto: Budrich UniPress Ltd.

Liversage, A. (2009). Finding a Path: Investigating the Labour Market Trajectories of High-Skilled immingrants. Journal of Ethic and Migration Studies, pp. 223-226.

OECD. (2013). How"s Life? 2013: Measuring Well/being. OECDi Library.

Ryff, C., & Keyes, C. (1995, 4). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. The structure of psychological well-being revisited., pp. 719–727. Retrieved from

Sauerwein, E. (2000, 01). Das Kano-Modell der Kundenzufriedenheit. Retrieved 10 17, 2021, from

Tisenkopfs, T., & Pisarenko, O. (2008). Dziesmu svētki mainīgā sociālā vidē. Baltijas Studiju centrs. Rīga: LU SPPI.

Urmersbach, B. (2020). Anzahl der lettischen Staatsb[rger in den Mitgliedstaaten der EU im Jahr 2020. Retrieved 02 16, 2022, from

Zobena, A., & Tisenkopfs, T. (2005). Latvija. Pārskats par tautas attīstību. Rīga: ANO Attīstības programma, LU Sociālo un politisko pētījumu institūts.






Social Evolution of Europe